Python Comprehension

Let's talk Python. Basics. List comprehension is a vital part of many Python scripts. It allows - in plain English - a programmer to build a list out of another list (or even other lists) in a very concise way. Python 3 has introduced the capabilities to apply comprehension to dictionaries and sets as well.

The fundamental idea of comprehension is to apply a given expression to each element of a list, a set or a dictionary (an iterable). Sounds familiar, if you think about the concept behind map, reduce and filter. In Python, an actual list comprehension looks this:

[ <expression> for <element> in <iterable> ]

This rather basic form can be extended to include a condition checked against each element of the iterable as well.

[ <expression> for <element> in <iterable> if <condition_applied_to_element> ]

If you need an else statement as well move the condition to the front like so:

[ <expression> if <condition_applied_to_element> else <statement> for <element> in <iterable>  ]

Examples

We have seen how comprehension works in theory. Let's use each of the three discussed options in a quick example.

To get started we add 1 to a list of numbers.

list_of_numbers = [23, 45, 62, 88]
added_one = [number + 1 for number in list_of_numbers]
print(added_one)

# prints [24, 46, 63, 89]

How about we take only even numbers out of our list of numbers and multiply them by two?

list_of_numbers = [23, 45, 62, 88]
even_ones = [number * 2 for number in list_of_numbers if number % 2 == 0 ]
print(even_ones)

# prints [124, 176]

Finally, we square the odd ones and replace the even numbers with foo.

list_of_numbers = [23, 45, 62, 88]
squared_and_replaced = [number * 2 if number % 2 != 0 else 'foo' for number in list_of_numbers ]
print(squared_and_replaced)

# prints [46, 90, 'foo', 'foo']

Conclusion

That's it with a quick and easy introduction to comprehension in Python. The simple examples just scratched the surface of what can be accomplished with comprehension. Give it a try the next time you are thinking about iterating over each element of a list.

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